International Cyber Laws And Their Purpose

International Cyber Law

The introduction of new digital information and communications technologies has given birth to a new legal domain, commonly called Cyber Law. Cyber law is the area of law dealing with the use of computers and the internet and the exchange of communications and information thereon, including related issues concerning such communications and information as the protection of intellectual property rights, freedom of speech, and public access to information. Some of the international cyber laws are as follows:

Fair Credit Reporting Act
The Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) is United States federal  legislation that promotes accuracy, fairness and privacy for data used by consumer reporting agencies. Consumer reporting agencies include credit bureaus and financial agencies such as those that sell information about rental history records.

Freedom Of Information Act
The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) generally provides that any person has the right to request access to federal agency records or information except to the extent the records are protected from disclosure by any of nine exemptions contained in the law or by one of three special law enforcement record exclusions.

International Cyber Law
International Cyber Law

Privacy Act
The Privacy Act of 1974 provides safeguards against invasion of personal privacy through the misuse of records by Federal Agencies. The Privacy Act was passed in 1974 to establish controls over what personal information is collected, maintained, used and disseminated by agencies in the executive branch of the Federal government.

Video Privacy Protection Act (VPPA)
The Video Privacy Protection Act of 1988 is United States legislation that prevents wrongful disclosure of an individual’s personally identifiable information stemming from their rental or purchase of audiovisual material, including videotapes, DVDs and video games. The U.S. Congress passed the act after Robert Bork had his video rental history published during his Supreme Court nomination process.

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act 
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) is an act created by the U.S. Congress in 1966 that amends both the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) and the Public Health Service Act (PHSA) in an effort to  protect individuals covered by health insurance and to set standards for the storage and privacy of personal medical data.

Copyright Act
The Copyright Law intends to encourage the creation of art and culture by rewarding authors and artists with a set of exclusive rights. Federal Copyright law grants authors and artists the exclusive right to make and sell copies of their works, the right to create derivative works, and the right to perform or display their works publicly. These exclusive rights are subject to a time limit, and generally expire 70 years after the author’s death.

Cyber Crime
Cyber crime, also called computer crime is the use of a computer as an instrument to further illegal ends, such as commuting fraud, and intellectual property, stealing identities, or violating privacy. Cyber crime, especially through the internet, has grown in importance as the computer has become central to commerce, entertainment and government.
Most cyber-crime is an attack on information about individuals, corporations or governments. Although the attacks do not takes place on a physical body, they do take place on the personal or corporate virtual body, which is the set of informational attributes that define people and institutions on the Internet. In other words, in the digital age our virtual identities are essential elements of everyday life: we are a bundle of numbers and identifiers in multiple computer database owned by governments and corporations. Cyber crime highlights the centrality of networked computers in our lives, as well as the fragility of such seemingly solid facts as individual identity.

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